What is an emulsion and what is it like? What are oil-free foundation? Anzhelika Baklaga, an independent makeup artist, answers these and other questions.
Foundations are designed to hide minor imperfections of our skin, even out tone, improve the look and give makeup a natural effect. A good foundation will mask fine wrinkles, blackheads, enlarged pores, dark circles under the eyes, and have good coverage and hold.
Choosing the right foundation is not so easy: you need to choose the right tone, texture (cream, milk, serum or stick), and it is also important that the product suits your skin type. Advertising does not stand still, and the world has seen various media with the cryptic letters BB or CC. How can one not get lost in all this diversity?
Let's start with the most fundamental - this is the type of emulsion (cream). A short excursion into colloidal chemistry - an emulsion consists of water, oil phases and emulsifiers, which "combine" these two phases. The foundation can be direct emulsion, inverse emulsion, oil-free emulsion and without water. The first two types are the most common.
Direct emulsion contains more water phase (50-60% and more), less oil phase (Armani Luminous Silk Fondation, or L'oreal True Match Super Blendable Foundation, or Bourjois Air Mat). How do you understand this by composition? Of course, it's great if you see a "direct" emulsifier in the composition and you are 100% sure that the emulsion is straight. In such formulations, water always comes first. However, with rare exceptions, it happens that in inverse emulsions, water comes first. Then the next step is distribution and sensation: the direct emulsion spreads more easily, dries much faster, does not weigh down and leaves a very light sensation after itself.
Reverse emulsion contains more oil phase, less water phase (MAC Studio Face and Body Foundation, or NYX Total Control Drop Foundation, or L'oreal Magic Nude Liquid Powder). In 99% of cases, some oil or silicone will be in the first place in the composition, and water - in the second, third or even fourth place. If we come across that rare case when water is still in the first place, and you have no idea where it is and what emulsifier is, we turn to sensations. The first thing that can be felt is a slight sensation of hydration, however, the inverse emulsion spreads less easily, dries longer on the skin and often leaves a heavy feeling. Also, a foundation like an inverse emulsion is very difficult to wash off with water, resistant to sweat, but if the skin is oily, it may "float".Therefore, owners of oily or combination skin intuitively prefer tonal products with direct emulsion, while owners of dry skin prefer tonal products with the opposite type of emulsion (heavier, "oily" sensations compensate for the sensations of dryness).
Also on the market you can find foundations with the signature "oil-free" (Estée Lauder Double Wear Light, Marc Jacobs Full Cover Foundation Concentrate, Make Up For Ever Liquid Lift Foundation). What is it? This means that you will not find any oil in the composition: neither vegetable, nor animal, nor mineral (the word oil will not sound in the list of ingredients). These emulsions are based on silicones and are preferred when the skin is very oily or problematic (acne). The formulations use silicones (almost all silicones), which are non-comedogenic, do not clog pores and create a breathable film on the skin. It feels like these emulsions spread and dry very quickly. Do not confuse "oil-free" and "oil-control" - these are absolutely two different functions that are performed by different components.
Foundations without water are most often in the form of a stick. Truly water-free and composed of oils, waxes and silicones (Tom Ford Traceless Foundation Stick). They are not easy to wash off. They have a very dense overlapping ability, give a heavier sensation and are not so easy to spread, and also perfectly mask skin imperfections, such as scars.
Let's look at two marketing phenomena like BB (Clarins BB skin perfecting cream) and CC (Giorgio Armani CC cream). They can be either direct emulsion or reverse (we look at the composition, we are looking for water - it comes first or not, and we also check the sensations after application). These funds appeared in the trend that in the modern frantic pace and rhythm of life, a woman has little time to take care of herself. Therefore, it would be nice to collect everything in one - and care, and anti-aging care, and SPF protection, and tone correction. BB creams are deciphered by manufacturers in different ways: blemish balm, beauty balm, beauty benefit, and CC creams are deciphered as color correction, color control. The formula of this product will contain various assets, extracts, marketing will be done on this, they are good for daily care,however, this marketing "eats up" the functionality that the foundation needs so much. Therefore, they often lose to tonal means in covering ability, durability and color correction. The foundation either does not contain any assets, or contains some kind of mono-asset, which is used more "for beauty" than for business, because the foundation is more focused on performing its functional tasks.
By the way, about the SPF factor. Many products have SPF15 (Vitalumiere Aqua Ultra-Light Skin Perfecting Makeup SPF 15, CHANEL) or SPF30 (Armani Maestro Glow SPF 30), sometimes even SPF40-50 (Bobbi Brown Intensive Skin Serum Foundation SPF 40). Protection from the negative effects of the sun is a separate broad topic. SPF foundations will not only give sunscreen filters, but also pigments. UV filters add a heavy feel to the cream, so if you are looking for a lighter feel, SPF can play a negative role in your choice. Yes, and pigments give a low, but still SPF factor (after all, they remain on the skin surface).
Pigments. This is the second fundamental factor in foundation. Inorganic pigments (zinc or iron oxides, accompanied by the letters CI and the shade number) are often used in foundations. Organic pigments are rarely used, and in the composition they are prescribed in words (Red No.…, Orange). In a foundation, there is always a combination of inorganic pigments - after all, some are responsible for color, while others are responsible for the play of light.
And in addition to the type of emulsion, tonal means differ in pigment composition, namely in the type of surface treatment of the carrier (this is not displayed in the composition, but it greatly affects the quality of toning and overlapping skin imperfections, which is immediately felt on the skin when testing the product). So, there is the cheapest pigment treatment - this treatment facilitates the introduction of pigment into the product, performing minimal functions for color correction. There is a treatment that gives the pigments a long-lasting effect, overlapping properties, and the correction will already be better. Another treatment, one of the best, that makes pigments resistant to sebum and water, improves opacity and light correction. Also, for oil-free products, pigments treated with special silicones are often used,which facilitates their introduction into silicone products and is able to ensure the final stability of the cream. The next difference in pigments is their quantity. Yes, roughly speaking, pieces. There are products with a very wide palette in the composition, and in addition to pigments that give a "flesh" tint in one tone or another, there are green, blue or red colors - such products will not only create tone, but also very well correct color imperfections (redness, rosation, bruises under the eyes, blackheads, etc.).but it is also very good to correct color imperfections (redness, rosation, bruises under the eyes, blackheads, etc.).but it is also very good to correct color imperfections (redness, rosation, bruises under the eyes, blackheads, etc.).
What other common or distinctive features can be distinguished in all tonal means? If we go further on the compositions, then these are, of course, various functional components-chips that increase the duration of wearing the product, contribute to the uniform distribution of pigment and, therefore, help and improve the coverage of the product. Each label has its own "handwriting", therefore, if you see something terrible and incomprehensible in the composition, then you should not be afraid, perhaps this is the very component that will be responsible for the declared properties from the manufacturer (Long-lasting Effect, Water- Proof, Full Coverage, etc.)
It is also worth saying a few words about packaging. The denser consistencies are packaged in tubes, the lighter ones, such as lotion or whey, will be packaged in a bottle with a dispenser or pipette. The packaging may initially give you a clue about the consistency and texture of the product, but most of all it plays a role in the ease of use.
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