It's impossible to stay at home in such weather. Moreover, when the restrictions have already been lifted. Therefore - an actual one: dermatocosmetologist Victoria Britko (@ dr.viktoria_13) and Ph.D. Kirill Masliev (@drmasliev) told whether it is necessary to apply cream under clothes, why SPF products are recommended to be removed at night and whether the pores are clogged with tonal bases with UV -factor.
Do I need to wear sunscreen under my clothes?
Products with UV filters should only be applied to exposed skin areas - face, arms, legs. UV rays do not penetrate under clothing, even if it is a very thin fabric.
How to calculate the correct time for exposure to the sun?
In order to calculate the required SPF, you need to know your erythema time at a given temperature in given weather conditions. This figure must be multiplied by the one indicated on the packaging of the protective product. This gives you the time you can spend in the sun before erythema (redness) or burns appear.
For example, at a temperature of 30 degrees, the erythemal time of a girl with fair skin and blue eyes is about 10 minutes. Accordingly, with SPF 50 protection, it can spend 500 minutes in the sun (10x50SPF = 500).
What kind of filter is better for the city: chemical or physical?
Physical and chemical filters work differently. The former reflect UV radiation, the latter convert solar energy into thermal energy. It is best when there are both in the composition - only then can we talk about full protection (the best sunscreens, according to the cosmetologist, look here).
All natural sunscreens are ineffective - their maximum protection does not exceed six.
Do SPF face creams clog pores?
Any foundation clogs pores - even one that is labeled "non-comedogenic". The presence or absence of an SPF filter in it does not "weather". Pores are clogged due to microparticles of pigment - you can't get away from this. Exacerbation of acne in summer is the result of a combination of cream, dust, excess sebum and other impurities. It is a good breeding ground for pathogenic microorganisms.
In summer, it is better to give preference to light textures and products without the presence of oils in the composition. Ideally, when it contains components that slightly regulate the activity of the sebaceous glands.
Should I use SPF creams every day?
Of course, starting in March. Even if it's cloudy outside, up to 40% of UVA radiation reaches the ground. Girls with skin phototypes I and II have every chance of getting sunburned.
Which is better to give preference: spray or cream?
It is better to use protection in the form of creams - sprays need to be able to dose correctly. First, they cover the skin in a very thin layer - some areas may remain unworked. Secondly, particles of the agent can enter the respiratory tract, provoking allergies and other unpleasant consequences.
All products in the form of sprays and aerosols are applied in several layers - one of the main rules.
Is one SPF foundation enough to protect your face in the city?
It is enough if you update it regularly throughout the day. In foundations the SPF factor rarely exceeds 30. Considering that for fair-skinned girls the average erythema time is about 10 minutes, remove the product and reapply it every 4-5 hours. In summer it is better to opt for lighter BB textures and CC creams. I would recommend going to the beach with a clean face, limiting yourself only to protection.
Can SPF face cream be combined with SPF powder and foundation?
No. If the day cream has SPF 30, and the powder has, for example, 20, the degree of protection is 30. You do not need to fold anything. If you apply several products with a UV filter, calculate the permissible time of exposure to the sun by inserting the number with the highest value into the formula (see 10 excellent products with SPF no more than 1000 rubles here).
How to properly apply SPF cream on your face?
The cream should be applied along the massage lines with patting movements - you do not need to rub it aggressively, pressing hard on the skin (this is not an anti-cellulite massage). If you want extra care, use a serum, gel, or any other nourishing agent first.
How to wash off SPF products?
There are no waterproof products with SPF - they are completely washed off after a shower. They are also removed from the face in the usual way in three stages: you will need milk for removing make-up, foam for washing, tonic.
What UV-factor cream is suitable for our climate?
The sun "does not shine equally for everyone"! Its activity depends on the region. In areas closer to the equator, the rays fall at a right angle - their effect is especially dangerous and detrimental to the skin. There you need to use protection higher than the one you are used to using (the erythema time is sharply reduced). It is easy to determine the UV index in your region on the nesgori.ru website or using a special application for a smartphone. In Moscow, for example, it is quite low - about three. In Sydney it is very high - in the range from eight to ten. There, during the daytime, it is better not to appear in the sun at all, even with maximum SPF protection.
Are there any SPF eye creams and are they needed in the city?
The periorbital region is very sensitive. She needs special care - some products and masks are generally contraindicated to apply to her (read the label!) - can cause irritation and redness. Special creams for the skin around the eyes with an SPF factor are very rare. They are not needed if you wear glasses all the time in the city. Periorbital sunscreen is available from Shiseido, Medik8, and several other brands.
How to choose SPF products depending on your skin type?
In addition to SPF protection, creams may contain caring and moisturizing components: hyaluronic acid, vitamins, and herbal extracts.
Owners of oily skin should avoid using mineral and essential oils.
Vaseline, paraffin, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids are prohibited.
Look for anti-inflammatory ingredients in the composition - at high temperatures and active sweating, this is especially important: green tea extract, chamomile, aloe.
Dry skin needs hydration 24 hours a day. Thermal water is a great helper for her. It can be applied throughout the day without restrictions. Oils are not contraindicated for her. For those with dry skin, everything that contains alcohol and dries is on the "black list". Of the useful components: vitamin E, glycerin, hyaluronic acid, shea butter, vitamins.
Is it true that SPF creams need to be applied 30 minutes before sun exposure?
No. SPF starts working immediately! It is quite appropriate to do this on the beach. In the first days of exposure to active sun, it is better to use products with maximum protection. Further SPF can be reduced.
Can SPF cosmetics be used at night?
Skin care products should be used as directed. Those with SPF filters are needed only during the day. The skin should rest at night - no need to load it with additional components. In addition, the physical filters that create the screen will prevent the grooming components from reaching their destination. Rinse off your SPF before bed (see the best night cream here).
Important! Monitor your skin's reaction to the SPF cream - if you notice redness or any other reaction, discard it. It is best to carry out an allergy test before use.
Is it true that SPF creams cause vitamin D deficiency?
In our climate, preparations based on vitamin D, which is produced under the influence of UV, should be taken from September to March, and sometimes in the summer months. Some people are wary of using SPF creams, believing that it causes cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) deficiency. There is not a single study proving that this is really the case.
Does SPF protect against freckles?
Cosmetologists even have such a concept "freckled phototype". On such skin, under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, melanin is actively formed, which is distributed pointwise. No cream can stop this process 100%.
What ingredients should be avoided in SPF products?
Avoid parabens, strong preservatives, and allergy-triggering fragrances in your protective agents. Benzophenone can cause endocrine disruption. Retinyl palmitate is often used by manufacturers of protective products. Under the influence of UV rays, it can provoke pigmentation. Avoid using retinoid cosmetics during periods of solar activity.
Can body protectant be applied to the face?
The most common mistake! You can't do this - pay off with rashes and other problems. Body products have a denser, thicker texture. Their components clog pores and simply form an "impenetrable" film, due to which metabolic processes are disrupted.
Do women with dark skin need to use SPF cream?
On dark skin, sunburns and age spots appear less often. This does not mean that it does not need to be protected. It is necessary, but the degree of protection may be lower.
Do you need UVB protection?
There are three types of UV rays: UVA, UVB and UVC. They differ in wavelength and biological activity. 95% of the radiation that reaches the earth's surface is UVA. And even clouds are not a hindrance to them. UVA rays penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin and contribute to an increase in the number of free radicals, provoking photoaging. UVB radiation is almost completely blocked by the ozone layer. In the best case, the surface of the earth reaches 5%. Despite the large amount of energy they contain, they cannot do any harm. It is enough if the cream contains only UVA protection.
Do I need to protect lips and hair from UV exposure?
Lip protection should be given as much attention as facial protection. They are also susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. If you ignore the protection, lips will “say hello” with dryness and micro-cracks. They have practically no melanin, which explains their special vulnerability. Be sure to apply special balms and lipsticks before going out in the sun. Look at the composition - look among the ingredients for vitamins A, E, F, herbal extracts and aloe juice.
Hair also needs protection. Not only do they lose color quickly when exposed to UV rays. Ultraviolet light dries hair, making it dull and brittle. During the period of solar activity, it is better to use special sprays and oils.
Candidate of Medical Sciences
Are chemical and physical face filters safe?
No UV filter can be considered 100% safe. Even oils with SPF clog pores. But their harmful effects are nothing compared to the damage that UV radiation can do to the skin. Beauty fears also have tendencies: today everyone considers milk useful, and tomorrow they refuse it, accusing it of rashes on the face and other "sins". It's the same with filters. No organic sun protection exists yet. Accept this fact. Another thing is that chemical filters are different - some of them are really unsafe.
Do physical filters provide reliable sun protection?
To begin with, physical filters cannot be considered 100% safe. They overload the stratum corneum of the skin, disrupt metabolic processes in the dermis, have an irritating effect, and can cause allergies. Physical filters act like a "screen" - it is difficult for them to provide reliable protection. They almost always work in tandem with chemical ones, converting UV rays into thermal energy.
What chemical filters should you avoid?
There are several dozen chemical filters, and some are only potentially dangerous - scientists suggest, but do not have the necessary evidence base. There are some that are really worth blacklisting. Benzophenone-3, for example. Recent studies have shown that this substance can enter the bloodstream and negatively affect the endocrine system. In addition, it is a fairly strong allergen. In modern means, it is practically not used. And yet, beware - it's not officially banned.
Oxybenzone acts like estrogen and can cause allergies. This component is found in most products, and is really good at absorbing ultraviolet radiation. But at the same time, he is fraught with the greatest danger.
Research carried out by the Zurich Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology has determined its ability to promote the growth of cancer cells. Scientists from the United States have found that it causes mitochondrial stress, which can be one of the causes of aging in the body.
Para-aminobenzic (labeled as PABA) is a highly irritating filter, Octinoxate, like Benzophenone-3, affects hormones.
Retinyl palmitate. This chemical compound is a type of vitamin A. There is nothing criminal yet, but research by US institutions suggests that retinyl palmitate can accelerate the development of skin tumors, even in the absence of sunlight.
Which chemical filters can be considered safe?
Again, there are several dozen of them. But there are those that neither chemists nor dermatologists have any complaints about. The real "name" is Bis-Ethylhexyloxyphenol Methoxyphenyl Triazine. It is a stable and safe substance that reliably protects against all types of radiation.
Ecamsule (Mexoryl SX) is a reliable and safe UVA protection.
Avobenzone does not affect the hormonal system and only acts on the surface of the skin.
Is it true that SPF products contain substances that penetrate into the bloodstream? Is it dangerous?
Yes it is. Scientific experiments have shown long ago that the chemicals that make up the product penetrate the tissues and then enter the bloodstream. Most sunscreens contain hormone-depleting chemicals that cannot be avoided when used. Read the composition carefully to protect yourself from unwanted consequences.