Clinical nutrition specialist, nutritionist Angelica Malyshkina (@prostroynost) told what products should be discarded in the summer, is it possible to get better from berries and why it is necessary to practice fasting days.
Nutritionist. Clinical Nutrition Specialist
Mistake # 1: not considering seasonal biorhythms
The fact that metabolism slows down in summer is a myth. There is a theory of seasonal biorhythms, according to which from April to September, on the contrary, the highest metabolic rates are observed. In the fall, the body begins to store fat in order to "winterize" - it happened evolutionarily.
From the middle of summer, many sweet fruits and berries ripen in nature. In ancient times, the abundance of sweet fruits in the diet gave a signal to the body that winter was coming. The level of insulin in the blood increased, and the program of "storing" energy in the form of fat in case of hunger times was activated. This explains why many people gain weight in the autumn-winter period.
Today, we have access to sweets and fatty foods all year round - obesity has become a pandemic. This does not mean that you need to give up fruits, berries and other valuable sources of vitamins. According to the WHO recommendation, you need to eat at least 400 grams of raw vegetables and fruits per day, regardless of the season.
Mistake # 2: Don't eat fruits and berries in the afternoon
Recently, there has been a lot of talk about the insulin index.
What is the difference between the glycemic (GI) and insulin (II) index?
The GI shows how much and how quickly the blood glucose level rises after eating a serving.
AI is the time and amount of insulin it takes to return the numbers to their original state.
The rise in insulin blocks the breakdown of fat and instructs the body to store fat. Some seemingly “harmless” products from the point of view of the glycemic index have high insulin levels (what? Indicator? Index? I think there is not enough explanatory word here) - cottage cheese, for example. This theory is quite young. There is little research on the insulin index. You need to pay attention to it when losing weight and in case of problems with insulin resistance. For the rest, it is not necessary to look back at this factor.
Anyone who is still puzzled by the question of the insulin index in fruits and berries, it is recommended to refrain from bananas, grapes, dates after dinner. Raspberries, blueberries, blueberries and other berries and fruits have low to medium AI - eat well! Regarding weight maintenance, it doesn't matter what time you consume seasonal vitamins - you do not need to limit yourself.
Mistake number 3: take into account fruit drinks and fruit drinks in the daily water intake
Juices, soups, fruit drinks, compotes are not included in the daily fluid intake. Pure water is needed to remove waste products from the body. Any other liquid is recycled - a lot of energy is spent on it. If you do not drink enough water, the excretory capacity of the cell is impaired - all systems and organs are affected. The norm is 30 ml per 1 kg of body weight. In hot climates, with heavy physical exertion and training, the rate can be increased to 45 ml per kg of weight. And don't forget about a glass of water 30 minutes before meals.
Mistake # 4: eat ice cream
It is better to exclude ice cream. It contains two main "enemies": fat and sugar. Manufacturers also add many substitutes, dyes and other harmful substances to it, turning it into a product that poses a threat to the body. The most high-calorie varieties are ice cream (240 kcal per 100 g), popsicle (250 kcal per 100 g), creamy (180 kcal).
Store-bought low-calorie fruit "ice" and sorbet are also better off. They have a low calorie content, but a poor composition - sugar, dyes, flavorings. Do you want ice cream in the heat? Cook at home. Whisk the Greek yogurt, banana, apricots, berries, and coconut (almond, plain) milk in a blender. Pour into molds. Freeze. This is delicious!
Mistake # 5: Eating too much red meat, sugar, and salt
According to recent studies, it is better to reduce the amount of red meat in the diet (beef, pork, lamb). Nutritionists recommend eating it once a week. This protein is difficult to digest.
Red meat contains heme, the substance responsible for the purple hue. Scientists believe that excessive amounts of it in the diet can cause the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Give preference to fish, chicken, turkey (especially in summer). The safe norm of protein per day is 0.8 g per 1 kg of body weight (a daily portion of red meat should not exceed 125 g).
80% of the products on our shelves contain sugar. I can talk about its dangers for a long time. Obesity is far from its worst consequences.
A Russian eats an average of 50 kg of sugar per year! This figure is too large. Give up sweets, bars, gingerbread, crackers, cakes.
There is little benefit in the love of salt. It is found in large quantities in processed foods.
Read the labels! There are a lot of products with hidden salt and sugar content on the shelves: sauces, for example. It is not recommended to eat them neither in summer, nor in winter, nor in autumn.
Mistake # 6: not replenishing the balance of micronutrients excreted with sweat
You can fill the lack of trace elements with the help of mineral water, which is sold in any pharmacy. But there are contraindications to its use: check with the pharmacist or be sure to read the label.
When you eat enough vegetables and fruits and do not exhaust yourself with strenuous physical activity, micronutrient deficiencies are more the exception than the rule.
Mistake # 7: not eating foods that stimulate melanin production
Melanin not only provides beautiful skin tone, but also protects it from harmful UV radiation. There are substances that can stimulate its production. Beta-carotene, for example, fights free radicals and activates natural defenses. Lycopene also enhances the skin's protective properties. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that prevents photoaging.
For a beautiful tan, you can: eat 200 g of apricots every day, drink a glass of carrot or tomato juice before going to the beach, add a melon (300 g per day) to your diet.
Mistake # 8: eating dairy products at night
I checked on myself and my clients: sour-milk products cause puffiness at night (I spoke about a high insulin index a little higher). Eat yogurt, kefir, cottage cheese in the morning. Only without fanaticism. If you are used to drinking a glass of kefir at night and at the same time you feel great - full of energy, do not swell and sleep well - continue to do this further.
Mistake # 9: skipping soup
Soups are a good, dietary, light meal. Puree soup, cold gazpacho - a storehouse of vitamins. If you do not like them, you do not need to force yourself. Try, experiment, eat what you like - there are many options.
Mistake # 10: don't do fasting days
Recent studies have shown that intermittent fasting prolongs life. It "reboots" the immune system.
All centenarians have a very limited diet - they eat in moderation. Professor, gerontologist, director of the Institute of Longevity Walter Longo in his latest study says that from intermittent fasting cancer cells die, memory improves, the speed of thinking, decreases the risk of diabetes, increases life expectancy. How to do it correctly? There is such a system: 5/2. For five days you eat normally, observing the daily norm of KBZHU. Then, for two days, reduce the calorie content to 400 kcal for women, 500 kcal for men. This is not as small as it seems. The diet might look like this. Breakfast: boiled egg + a piece of fatty lightly salted fish. Lunch: nuts. Dinner: steamed fish with vegetables. In the summer, you can unload on watermelon, vegetables and berries.
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