Valentina Paevskaya (@valentinapaevskaya), a children's neuropsychologist and mother of two sons, talks about why it is important to ask a child to read aloud and how board games develop reading skills.
Do not hurry!
From the point of view of neuropsychology, you need to learn to read no earlier than five years. Only by this age do the parts of the brain mature that are capable of recognizing artificial symbols (letters and numbers).
Reading is based on the conceptual sphere, the child must imagine all the objects he reads about. But up to 5 years old, he may simply not perceive information, because abstract thinking is still being formed. In the future, such early attempts at reading may lead to dyslexia and dysgraphia, the child will, for example, mirror letters in school. The famous professor Tatiana Chernigovskaya adheres to the same opinion.
At seminars, I always tell parents: everyone wants to buy orthopedic shoes for children and regularly go to orthopedists, but few go to an ophthalmologist to find out if they can start learning to read at an early age. Any specialist will say that the human eye matures up to 12 years old and the fundus is formed all this time. Excessive tension of up to 5 children to the eyes is useless.
Study the ABC book
Start with the usual "Primer" by Nadezhda Zhukova. The main rule for parents: do not get stuck on one page. Learn a new letter every day. By page 15, the child may not remember half of the letters, it's not scary. Usually by the end of the ABC book, even children with developmental delays memorize all letters and begin to read slowly. If this does not happen, you can start over. But in my practice, there were no such cases.
Ask your child to retell what they read.
When your baby has learned to read sentences, ask them to retell them. As a rule, at this stage, children begin to get stuck: they read and do not understand the meaning. Therefore, it makes no sense to teach a baby to read at three years old - for him it is just a set of sounds.
If the child cannot retell, ask him to reread the sentence and try again. Once you've figured out one sentence, you can learn to retell two. And so on increasing. Thus, an individual approach to reading is formed. Each has its own volume of pages, which he can read and retell. For example, my eldest son had this figure - 60 pages, the youngest - 30.
Retelling and reading full books prepares the brain to process a lot of information in the future. A child who trains without stress and in accordance with his abilities will easily prepare for school in two years.
Board games with cards with a minimum description of tasks develop reading skills. For example, Evolution is a great game that every home should have. I also like Around the World in 80 Days. Playing in them, the child is forced to read, and he becomes motivated. Another option is to teach him how to use a search engine on the Internet.
The main thing is regularity
Don't panic if your child can't read quickly. All children are different. It happens that he reads a year very slowly in syllables, and the speed does not increase. And then, in a short space of time, he begins to read as quickly as an adult. And vice versa: the pace may slow down over time, but then everything will return to normal. The main thing is to read regularly. See it yourself or ask a nanny if you have one (here is a psychologist Lada Lapina tells why a nanny is not a crime against motherhood).
When a child reads aloud, he or she speaks out mistakes that may appear while writing. As a rule, he stumbles on endings, swallows consonants. If you achieve perfect reading quality, he will learn not to make grammatical mistakes.
Many parents do not pay attention to commas, do not highlight them in intonation. Because of this, there may be participial errors, for example. My oldest son stopped reading aloud only by the 5th grade.