Nutritionist Ulyana Kuzora (@miaa_yasha) told how an excess of protein in the diet affects kidney function, why dairy products affect sleep, and is it true that protein is required after exercise.
Fact # 1: The body needs both animal and plant protein
Proteins are of animal and vegetable origin. Animals are considered more complete - they contain 8 essential amino acids that the body needs for normal functioning, B vitamins (their lack in the diet is the cause of stress, decreased physical activity, lethargy), iron, which is necessary to maintain the immune system, thyroid gland, Omega -3 in the form of alpha-linoleic acid (essential for the synthesis of other essential fatty acids).
Plant-based proteins should not be underestimated either - they are a good source of fiber to support normal gastrointestinal function. They are often called inferior - they do not contain all the essential amino acids (lysine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, histidine). But they are also required in the diet. The approximate ratio of vegetable to animal protein is 45% to 55%.
Fact number 2: the daily protein intake is different for everyone
The protein rate per day is individual for each person. Depends on physiological data and sports loads. On average, the norm for a healthy person varies from 1-1.5 g per kg of weight, for pregnant and lactating women - up to 2 g per kg of weight.
Fact number 3: when losing weight, the protein rate is calculated individually
During the period of weight loss, it is important to correctly calculate the protein rate. During weight loss, you do not need to dramatically increase its amount - it is not safe for health. If, for example, during the period of weight maintenance your norm is 115 g, while losing weight it increases to 140. The calorie deficit should not exceed 15%. BJU standard for weight loss: proteins - 15-35%, fats - 20-35%, carbohydrates - 40-65%.
Fact # 4: lack of protein in the diet negatively affects health
Proteins perform many different functions: protective (necessary for the normal functioning of the immune system), transport (carry oxygen and nutrients), regulatory, and energy. They are also involved in the transmission of genetic information. But first of all, it is the main "building material" for the body (the epithelium, for example, is renewed every 3-4 days).
Lack of protein is destructive - all metabolic processes deteriorate, the work of systems and organs is disrupted. First of all, the liver, muscles and hormones are affected. Athletes lose muscle mass and develop problems with the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
Fact # 5: weakness and headaches may indicate a lack of protein
General weakness is one of the signs of a lack of protein in the diet. It can be accompanied by muscle spasms, tremors in the limbs, and impaired coordination of movement. Due to protein deficiency, the synthesis of serotonin and other hormones decreases - a person may experience sleep problems and headaches. Pallor, skin rashes, a tendency to swelling, slow wound healing, hair loss, delamination of the nail plate - all this is a sign that you need to revise your diet and get tested.
Fact number 6: protein gets better
They get better not from proteins, fats or carbohydrates, but from a calorie surplus. And it doesn't matter what you got them: a chocolate bar or two kilograms of fish. Another thing is that protein foods are less high in calories. For example: the calorie content of pink salmon is 147 kcal per 100 g, "snickers" - 488 kcal. Protein is an essential macronutrient in the diet. But any excess calories are transformed into subcutaneous fatty tissue.
Fact number 7: when 1 g of protein is oxidized, 4 kcal is released
Under the influence of pepsin, the protein breaks down into polypeptides and amino acids. From the latter, the body synthesizes new ones that it needs for normal work, or converts them into energy. When 1 g of protein is oxidized, 4 kcal is released.
Fact # 8: too much protein in the diet increases the burden on the kidneys
An excess of protein primarily affects the kidneys - the level of urea and uric acid in the blood increases. Failure to comply with KBZHU can also cause structural damage to the liver.
An excess of protein is one of the reasons for the development of osteoporosis. The body can only use a certain amount of protein. He recycles the remains. To do this, the body needs additional calcium, which is taken from the bones. Balance to stay healthy.
Fact # 9: protein can cause allergies
Protein intolerance is a rare type of food allergy. It most often occurs in early childhood (50%). The reason is a violation of the immune system. The body mistakenly perceives a foreign protein as a harmful chemical compound and begins to attack it. Histamine is released in the blood, causing an allergic reaction. Unfortunately, there is no drug therapy to relieve this condition. You can get rid of allergies only by eliminating foods containing an allergen.
Fact # 10: Protein diets are temporary
Any diet has a temporary effect. A lasting result can be achieved only by completely switching to proper nutrition. The most popular protein diet is Ducan (for which he was excluded from the French medical register and the International Association of Nutritionists). It implies a complete rejection of carbohydrates and unlimited consumption of animal protein.
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy. With a shortage, the body begins to destroy fat cells, and in parallel with them muscles and glycogen stores.
As soon as you return carbohydrates to the diet, the body begins to store them at a breakneck speed - kilograms will quickly return and "friends" will be brought.
Fact number 11: proteins, fats, carbohydrates are normally combined with each other
There are no products that consist of only proteins - at least, carbohydrates are definitely present in them. And our body normally assimilates them together. The myth that proteins, fats and carbohydrates are not combined is fueled by advocates of separate nutrition, to which nutritionists also have many questions. The body needs all macronutrients - this is an indisputable fact.
Fact # 12: Protein for sports nutrition is obtained from whey
Protein for athletes is obtained from whey (whey protein) or curd (casein protein). For people who are not involved in sports, there is no point in taking additional protein - protein shakes are useless.
Fact # 13: protein powder is not "chemistry"
Protein powder is not chemistry if it is made from natural raw materials (milk). They are essential for quick muscle recovery after intense training.
Fact # 14: A protein snack after a workout is only needed to gain muscle mass
Post-workout nutrition depends on your goals. If you are interested in building muscle mass, you need to use the "metabolic" window and eat something protein 20-30 minutes after physical activity (this is a source of amino acids necessary for recovery). Ideally, carbohydrates are also needed to help replenish glycogen stores.
Fact # 15: protein needs to come from different foods
To provide the body with all the essential amino acids, you need to get them from different foods. Curd, for example, contains 14% protein with a complete amino acid composition. Vegetables and greens contain one to two amino acids. And the more varied the table, the more likely they will enter the body.
Fact # 16: protein intake should be even throughout the day
Protein in the diet should prevail in the evening - by the end of the day we do not need as much energy as at the beginning. Ideally, a protein product is included in every meal. Distribute your protein intake correctly. For breakfast, give preference to cheese, eggs, cottage cheese. For lunch - meat dishes, legumes, for dinner - fish and vegetables.
Fact # 17: the absence of animal protein in the diet affects the body
There is a fierce debate over whether positive or negative. Adepts of vegetarian diets say: you can live without animal protein. I have a different opinion on this matter. Protein that enters the body with food is useless in itself. Only one thing is required of him - amino acids. From them, another protein is synthesized, "friendly" to our body. Essential amino acids can be synthesized. Irreplaceable - no. They come only with food. Methionine, for example, is an essential amino acid found in ample amounts in red meat. It is impossible to obtain it in the required volume from other sources.
Fact # 18: legumes are the main source of plant protein
Foods high in vegetable protein: beans, lentils, chickpeas, seeds, nuts, sesame seeds. It is found in sufficient quantities in buckwheat, wheat and cereals based on it: bulgur, spelled.
Fact # 19: protein is involved in brain stimulation
Protein is an essential macronutrient for brain function. Amino acids are secreted by neurotransmitters - substances that take part in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Protein deficiency has dire consequences. Fatigue and fatigue are just the tip of the iceberg.
The plant protein contained in nuts stimulates brain activity well - include them in your daily diet.
Fact # 20: proteins differ in digestibility
Proteins differ in the degree of digestibility. Slow ones are broken down by the body for a long time, dulling hunger. The fast ones are better absorbed and fill with energy faster. The source of slow proteins is cottage cheese, cheese. Fast - meat, eggs, fish.
Fact # 21: milk protein is better absorbed after enzymatic fermentation
Milk is 90% water. The remaining 10% is spent on casein and whey proteins - globulin and albumin. The first is distinguished by its difficult digestibility and poor digestibility (the main reason is insolubility in water). This is a minus in the diet of an adult and a plus in the diet of children. The low rate of breakdown of milk protein contributes to the dosed and uniform saturation of the baby's blood with amino acids - their level is stable for up to six hours.
The body of an adult better absorbs calcium caseinate, a protein obtained as a result of enzymatic fermentation of milk. Many nutritionists recommend giving up pure milk, preferring lactic acid products.
Whey proteins have a balanced amino acid composition. In structure, they are as close as possible to the proteins of muscle tissue. They are often used to make protein powder.
Fact # 22: dairy products can cause severity
After dairy products, you may experience discomfort if you have bowel problems. Almost a third of the population is lactose intolerant - "milk sugar". This condition is associated with a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which is involved in its breakdown. If 30 minutes after a glass of milk you regularly experience bloating, this is a reason to think about it and see a doctor.
Fact number 23: a group of enzymes that break down protein - proteinases
These are enzymes of the hydrolase group that cleave peptide bonds. They are divided into six classes: serine, threonine, cysteine, aspartate, metalloproteinases, glutamic. Lack of enzymes is the cause of problems with the gastrointestinal tract, liver, gallbladder, pancreas.
Fact number 24: the daily protein intake in baby food is different from that of an adult
The daily protein intake in baby food is from 2.2 to 3 g per 1 kg of weight (up to a year), from 36 to 87 g after a year. It is important to follow these numbers for normal growth and development of your baby.
Fact # 25: chicken protein is a great source of protein
Chicken protein is a very good source of protein. Contains all important amino acids and is low in calories. But be careful - chicken protein can cause allergies. This phenomenon is quite common. Chicken eggs are rich in vitamins, iron, folic acid and other substances. The body can react to any of them! The most common cause is a reaction to albumin. Symptoms appear immediately: skin rash, itching, problems with the gastrointestinal tract and breathing. The norm of eggs per day is no more than three.
Fact # 26: protein foods affect mood and sleep
Proteins contain tryptophan, an amino acid that is responsible for good mood and normal sleep.
Lack of protein in the diet greatly affects the sleep-wake cycle in children. Due to a lack of protein, their synthesis of serotonin decreases - the baby does not fall asleep well.
You can solve the problem by increasing your intake of tryptophan: it is present in most plant proteins.
Fact # 27: we have different rates of protein digestion
We are all different, and so are the needs of the body. Someone starts the day with a protein tomorrow and feels great, someone needs carbohydrates to start the body. Learn to listen to yourself. We have different rates of protein digestion. One body needs an hour for this, another three. This fact must be taken into account when drawing up a diet.
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