How to set goals correctly when losing weight, are mono-diets harmful and why should there be "fast" carbohydrates in the diet? The Psychologist, Gastroenterologist, and Nutritionist Answers The Top 100 Questions About Weight Loss.
Gastroenterologist of the highest category, nutritionist, osteopath, candidate of medical sciences
Are there any benefits from fasting days?
Fasting days, I definitely recommend to be carried out under the supervision of a doctor. They can cause harm in the presence of diseases that have contraindications for spending such days, pregnant women, lactating mothers, in childhood. And in the presence of diabetes mellitus and some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, fasting days are possible only under the supervision of a doctor.
There are various schemes: from canceling dinners a couple of times a week (16-hour fasting interval), which you can do on your own, to a couple of dozen days of fasting, held in specialized clinics.
How strict diets harm the body?
Nutritionists sometimes prescribe strict diets, but when indicated (for example, autoimmune protocols). And the goal of such diets is to normalize metabolism, even to cure certain diseases. And often, adherence to a strict diet is a vital necessity (celiac disease, for example).
If there are no indications, gastroenterologists do not recommend sitting on a strict diet - a lack of calories often leads to malfunctions of internal organs, and a deficiency of vitamins and minerals can lead to more serious consequences.
Are gastroenterologists on the side of vegetarianism or against it?
There are many types of vegetarianism - from refusing meat to a raw food diet. I am always in favor of a reasonable balanced approach to such restrictions, the development of a balanced diet. Patients often come to me who, having given up meat, replaced this product with a large amount of fast carbohydrates, which a priori cannot have a positive effect on metabolism.
How to fill the lack of necessary elements for those who still gave up meat?
Again, I repeat that there are a lot of types of vegetarianism, but the use of dietary supplements is most likely required. The most common deficiencies are vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies. But I urge you not to prescribe them independently, but to seek help from a nutritionist who, based on laboratory tests, will make the appropriate appointments.
Is a detox diet effective?
Much of the juices craze is believed to have contributed to the United States' fame as a country with high rates of obesity. The fact is that juices, both fruit and vegetable, have a higher calorie content, sugar content, as well as organic acids that affect tooth enamel, in comparison with the original product.
This is why many nutritionists do not recommend purely juice-based detox diets.
Is there really a blood type nutrition system?
This diet was developed by naturopathic physicians James and Peter D'Adamo. Despite its popularity, there is no conclusive scientific evidence to support the four blood type diet.
Is a protein diet dangerous to the body?
The popular, I would say, a few years ago, a protein diet has a number of contraindications in the presence of kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract diseases in a person. Again, if you decide to follow such a diet, then it is better to do this after consulting a nutritionist, who will certainly take into account the individual characteristics of your metabolism.
The diet involves eating predominantly protein foods - eggs, cottage cheese, fish, lean meat, but the body is devoid of carbohydrates.
Excess protein can lead to metabolic disturbances - this is the basis of every cell in the body.
How many meals should there be per day?
If there are no concomitant diseases - 3.
Are snacks during the day good or bad?
If the patient has insulin resistance - the cause of many diseases (obesity, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, etc.), snacks are undesirable - they provoke the release of insulin.
And the task of the nutritionist is to increase the sensitivity of the body's cells to insulin. Snacks are possible only if the patient suffers from gastroesophageal reflux disease, exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease, irritable bowel syndrome. The question of the need for snacks is always decided individually.
Is it really harmful to drink water during and after meals?
Indeed it is. It is advisable to drink water 20-30 minutes before meals and an hour and a half after.
In any case, in no case should you drink cold drinks with food - this significantly reduces the time for digesting food, which means that the feeling of hunger will not keep you waiting long.
Many diets allow small amounts of dry red wine - what do gastroenterologists think about it?
There are a number of contraindications to this recommendation. The most common: liver disease, gout and alcohol dependence.
In addition, recently there have been studies proving the participation of even minimal doses of alcohol in the development of carcinogenesis (oncology), especially in females.
However, there are also supporters of the daily consumption of small doses of wine, who note their anticarcinogenic effect. Scientists have not yet come to a single unambiguous opinion on this issue.
Some nutritionists insist on the uselessness of soups - what is the opinion of gastroenterologists?
I do not recommend totally excluding soups from the diet for everyone. Moreover, the frequency of constipation in patients who do not consume soup daily is very high.
Is it true that a ketogenic diet can help you lose extra pounds faster than exercising?
The ketogenic diet is a diet high in fat and moderate in protein. It was originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in children. This diet forces the body to use fat as its main source of energy. To do this, exclude high-carbohydrate foods from the diet, such as sweet fruits and vegetables, bread, pasta, cereals and sugar, but at the same time increase the amount of fat-rich foods, such as cheese and butter.
I recommend that you decide on the appointment of this diet only with a dietitian and take into account all contraindications.
But you need to understand that none of the existing diets can replace sports training, since we need sports not only to fight extra pounds
What "harmful" foods do our bodies need in moderation?
In recent years, dietetics has fundamentally revised its view of the portion of foods, and there is ample evidence that low-fat diets negatively affect our bodies.
Butter is an essential ingredient in the diet, an excellent source of healthy fats and vitamins A, D, E and K. Even pork, if you do not give it up for religious or ideological reasons, is an excellent product, provided that you eat more than just it but also other types of meat.
Although, of course, a lot depends on what kind of food the animal ate.
But bakery products are very controversial, so for bowel diseases today, nutritionists often prescribe a gluten-free diet.
Is so-called detox water good for you?
Detox water - water with added fruits, vegetables or herbs - is a popular way of getting yourself to drink more.
If there are no contraindications from the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, then the use of such drinks is permissible. However, it cannot be stated unequivocally that they can completely compensate for the deficiency of vitamins and minerals in the body, so they can be safely equated to ordinary water.
How can a raw diet be dangerous?
Scientific studies proving the exceptional benefits for the body of a raw food diet do not yet exist. And in the middle zone of Russia, such a diet is generally difficult to implement without harm to health.
What are superfoods and why should they be added to your daily diet?
Superfoods are considered to be foods with a high content of nutrients. These include acai berries, kale, quinoa, cocoa beans, and many other foods. With regard to superfoods, almost every day there are certain publications proving or refuting their effectiveness. Therefore, I advise you to adhere to a balanced diet, and not focus only on foods with a high content of vitamins and minerals - everything should be in moderation.
Are goji berries good for stomach and digestion?
Goji berries - a superfood native to China and Tibet - many add to their usual dishes or drink tea, pouring boiling water over the product. They contain many antioxidants that help boost immunity, but there is still no compelling scientific evidence to prove the miraculous effects of goji berries.
What superfoods are not only good for the digestive tract, but also contribute to weight loss?
In fact, many foods can be classified as superfoods: different types of cabbage, berries, nuts, algae, and so on. It is understood that with their regular use, the risk of developing various diseases, including obesity, decreases. But if you eat unhealthy food in parallel, then you shouldn't expect miracles from superfoods.
Refusal from dairy products - for or against?
The benefits and harms of dairy products have been one of the most controversial topics in recent years. There are many opponents who claim that milk contains estrogens and growth factors that cause the development of various cancers. Other scientists refute this fact, saying that these substances are destroyed in the human intestine. There is a genetically determined intolerance to lactose, casein.
However, many scientists believe that in order for this intolerance to be realized, there must be certain conditions associated with various nutritional deficiencies. In a word, milk is a very controversial product and gastroenterologists cannot yet come to categorical conclusions about its benefits or harms.
How common is lactose intolerance and what causes it?
Congenital lactose deficiency is extremely rare. However, with age, the amount of lactose in the body, and therefore the ability to assimilate whole milk, decreases.
According to statistics in Russia, the frequency of lactose intolerance is 16-30%, which means that almost every third person may experience intestinal problems when consuming milk and dairy products.
Is it true that dairy products are addictive?
Calling a love of dairy products an addiction would be wrong, although some studies have tried to prove otherwise. Scientists cite casein, an enzyme found in dairy products, which acts like an opiate by breaking down in the intestines. Others insist that lactose is also sugar, and therefore addictive.
In any case, in central Russia it is quite difficult to find a substitute for them of plant origin, besides, the price of “dairy” products made from coconut, almonds, rice or oats is quite high.
Can enzyme production stop permanently if you quit certain foods?
The fact is that the production of certain enzymes in our body does not depend on the use of a certain product. But it can change depending on the composition of the intestinal microflora, for example.
Sugar has been proven to be harmful - but is it worth giving it up completely?
Definitely worth it, because added sugar is absolutely not needed for the normal functioning of our body. It can be synthesized from proteins and fats - and that's enough.
Brown sugar is healthier than white sugar - truth or myth?
Both brown and white sugar contain roughly the same amount of calories, so they won't do any good for your figure. In recent years, dietetics and gastroenterology have taken the path of eliminating added sugars from the diet.
Therefore, remember that sugar, even brown, is still sugar.
Are there any harmless sweeteners?
All sweeteners can be divided into synthetic and natural. The former not only often do not help to lose weight, but also lead to the opposite effect due to a decrease in blood sugar levels. If you still want to find an analogue to sugar, today I would recommend stevia and erythrol.
Is stevia so harmless?
There is some evidence that stevia can increase insulin levels. With rational use, this sweetener will not bring significant harm, but it is better to monitor the reaction of your body and introduce stevia into the diet in small portions.
What good habits can help you avoid eating hidden sugar?
Hidden sugar is found in a variety of fruit and carbonated drinks, flavored ready-made iced teas, yoghurts, breakfast cereals, and even instant cereals. In addition, some sauces contain a lot of sugar: for example, one tablespoon of ketchup can contain a teaspoon of sugar.
Try to avoid semi-finished products, cook more yourself and make sure that your food is varied and balanced, and replace dessert with fruit.
How do gastroenterologists view macrobiotic nutrition?
The main goal of macrobiotic nutrition is more likely to improve the body's health, rather than losing weight. And, unlike other diets, macrobiotics does not imply temporary abandonment of certain foods, here you will have to change your entire lifestyle. Considering the fact that the macrobiotic diet implies the consumption of only organic products growing near the place of residence, for the majority of the inhabitants of our country, it, a priori, cannot be completely balanced in terms of macro- and micronutrients. But some principles of such nutrition will certainly be useful.
Are there any diets officially approved by gastroenterologists?
Any diet should take into account the individual characteristics of the organism, the presence of certain diseases, as well as deficiency conditions. That is why diets should be prescribed by doctors.
But the advice that a gastroenterologist will give you, you already know - nutrition should be balanced and varied, according to your personal calorie intake and lifestyle. Do not torture yourself with strict diets unless recommended by your doctor, and remember to drink water.
Is it possible to lose weight without playing sports?
Yes, you can lose weight without sports. The only question is what kind of goal a person pursues: just to be slim and wear a certain size of clothing, or to have an excellent body quality. With physical activity (whether it's a gym, dancing, walking, yoga or home workouts), we end up with muscle tone, which naturally makes the figure visually more attractive. Therefore, I advise you to lose weight with physical activity, you just need to choose exactly those that are right for you.
Can I eat after 18:00?
Yes, you can and should eat after six. Imagine a person who wakes up at 1 pm and goes to bed, for example, at 5 am. If he uses this rule, then in the end the period of hunger will be 19 hours a day. Just think about this number! 19 hours out of twenty four. Of course, the body will perceive this as a threat of starvation, and after a couple of days we will get a character who tries to eat everything that is not nailed down, then begins to reprimand himself for this and again goes on another diet.
You need to eat the last time a day 2-3 hours before bedtime. If you usually go to bed at 23 o'clock, then you can safely have dinner at 20 o'clock or even at 21 o'clock.
Are low fat foods healthy?
I am not a fan of low fat foods. Consuming, for example, cottage cheese 0.2%, we are missing out on a lot of vitamins (for example, fat-soluble vitamin D). And to preserve the taste and consistency of such products, manufacturers often add starch, fructose syrup, sugar, and so on. As a result, there are more sugars, and hunger will appear earlier than if you ate a fatter product.
In small amounts, milk fats contain good cholesterol, which oxidizes the same bad cholesterol that affects the heart and blood vessels. And in products with low fat content, there is only oxidized (harmful) cholesterol.
How to curb your evening appetite?
For a start, I would find out why this appetite appeared, since with a balanced diet, even at the time of losing weight, there should be no feeling of hunger. Often, hunger in the evening appears if a person has not eaten his norm of complex carbohydrates during the day, if, in general, he ate with a very large deficit or forgot to drink water.
Are dairy products and, in particular, cow's milk harmful?
Recently, a lot of studies have been carried out on this topic, which have shown that dairy products and whole milk are still harmful. And in each specific case, you need to decide whether milk will bring benefits more than harm.
At the moment, I am of the opinion that fermented milk products should be left in the diet, and milk consumption should be reduced, using it only for making cereals and for adding to coffee in small quantities.
How to unlearn your sweet tooth?
Sweet food should be present, the only question is how much. And if you eat a bar of chocolate at a time, then you should pay attention to a few points:
1) do you eat enough complex carbohydrates, or the body, due to their lack, asks for the simplest fuel - the same chocolates;
2) do you drink your water intake (do not confuse it with the silly rule of two liters of water a day);
3) are you getting enough sleep.
And when you figure out these three points, then you yourself will notice how you began to grab one candy for coffee.
Why does weight suddenly stop losing weight when losing weight?
Focusing on weight while losing weight is a road to nowhere, because weight is a completely dishonest friend. Normally, it can fluctuate within 2 kg per day (yes, per day). Also, the weight will certainly increase in the second phase of the cycle in women, if you overeat (or drank too much) carbohydrates, salt the day before, if you did not get enough sleep, if you experienced severe stress. As you can see, weight is really not an objective indicator.
I always say that you need to focus only on measurements - it is better to do them once a week on an empty stomach.
Is it true that you can eat anything you want until 12 noon?
No, let's remember the same person who wakes up at 13 o'clock. How does he manage to eat everything before 12? Well, but seriously, if you overeat before 12, it will negatively affect your figure in exactly the same way as if you overeat after 12. You need to eat balanced, measured, in accordance with your rhythm of life.
How many liters of water should you drink per day? How to calculate your rate?
There are separate norms for winter and summer, and I talk about them at my winter and summer food marathons. But generally speaking, not taking into account the climate, health features, the nature of the diet, etc., then a person needs 30 ml of water per 1 kg of weight per day.
Why do some people who do not limit themselves in anything do not get better?
If you look at the food of such people more closely, you will notice that they eat just about anything, but in a small amount in the context of the week. For example, today this person can eat whole pizza with you, washed it all down with soda, and tomorrow he will limit himself to half a chocolate bar. That is, the food, of course, is disgusting, but its calorie content in the context of the week is such that it is barely enough to maintain weight. And you can safely add here 2% of people who have got a very good metabolism or any diseases.
Do dietitians recognize intuitive weight loss foods?
I personally don't admit it. This concept means that all control over nutrition lies with the person himself, and given that most people who are overweight and have disturbed eating behavior, it will be strange if he “intuitively” chooses what to eat, although he is not able to to distinguish even the feeling of true hunger from the psychological.
In addition, the goal of a healthy diet is not only to get enough calories, but also macro and micronutrients from vegetables and fruits. And if a person intuitively does not want anything but potatoes? Or eggs? This will not cover all the needs of our body. Therefore, intuitive eating remains just a "theory".
Can fasting help you lose weight?
Intermittent fasting is practiced and has positive effects. However, it also has many contraindications, and it can be used only under the supervision of the attending physician. Also, this method of losing weight is difficult psychologically and can lead to "breakdowns" and weight gain, so preference still remains for a healthy regular diet.
Vegetable pureed soups are available, however, they should not contain a lot of salt.
Can Stevia replace sugar? Is this sweetener harmful to the body?
Stevia is not officially listed as a safe sweetener by the FDA, but that doesn't mean it's harmful. There is simply not yet a sufficient evidence base to argue otherwise.
Numerous studies have shown that stevia can be used without harm to health, but during pregnancy and breastfeeding, its use should be excluded.
Should you avoid gluten-free foods?
No. To date, there is no evidence that gluten is somehow harmful to our body. It must be completely excluded from the diet only for people suffering from celiac disease - that is, gluten intolerance.
How to train yourself to have a hearty breakfast if there is no appetite at all in the morning?
You don't have to force yourself to have breakfast if you don't want to. Eating in general should never be forced.
Nothing bad will happen if you skip breakfast and eat a little later.
What can you eat at night without harming your figure?
It is important to maintain a balance during the day and then the choice "what to eat" will not stand. It is preferable to choose protein foods (fish, meat, eggs, seafood, legumes), vegetables, and carbohydrates are also allowed. But it is important to remember that most of the carbohydrates should be in the first half of the day.
Is it harmful for those who are losing weight to eat red meat and, in particular, pork?
Not harmful. But red meat should not be eaten by people who have diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus and lipid metabolism disorders. Another thing is that pork contains a large amount of fat, it is important to take them into account when drawing up a dietary food.
Why does bloating feel after eating? How to avoid this?
If you are worried about bloating, and constantly, you need a consultation with a gastroenterologist. At a minimum, you will have to go on a diet that limits dairy products, fresh vegetables and fruits.
Cheat meal while dieting - is it a way out or a way to breakdown?
Everything is individual. In my opinion, a cheat meal is a way to get away from a breakdown. But it must be done correctly! First, cheat meals should be done 2-3 times a month, not more often. Secondly, cheat meals are allowed only for those who have an ideal diet and lead an active lifestyle. Thirdly, it is advisable to do cheat meal as one meal, and not "I eat what I want all day." However, this option is also possible if the weight costs a long time, and food is strictly limited in calorie content. One way or another, this issue is resolved specifically with each person - it is even easier for some to avoid cheat meals.
Is it true that drinking water while eating is harmful?
Proponents of this idea make the following argument: water dilutes gastric juice and digestion is difficult. In fact, this is not an entirely accurate statement. The digestive system is able to adjust the amount of digestive juices to the amount of incoming water, so that the food always has the right consistency. Liquids pass through the digestive tract faster than solid food and do not affect the rate of digestion. Limiting water during meals is only for those who suffer from heartburn. And also do not forget that high-calorie drinks (lemonade, compote, juice) are also a kind of food.
How to choose the optimal diet for weight gain when it is deficient?
If you're trying to gain weight and you still can't reach your goal, chances are you're just not consuming enough calories. Gaining weight is always more difficult than losing it. Ectomorphs, that is, people with a fairly low weight, often say that they eat "everything", but the weight does not increase. In fact, 95% of the time, it turns out that there are not so many calories. Keep track of calories and macronutrients in the kit. Your diet should be rich in protein, fat and carbohydrates.
How many kilograms can you lose in a week without harm to your health?
The number of pounds lost in a week may differ for different people. It is necessary to take into account the initial weight (we lose weight from 150 kg or from 60 kg), as well as the "experience" in the diet. In the initial stages, weight goes away faster - excess water leaves the body first. On average, we can safely lose 1% of the original weight per week.
Is it possible to lose weight after childbirth while breastfeeding?
During breastfeeding, calorie expenditure is greatly exceeded.
If a woman's usual consumption was 1700 calories per day, then during breastfeeding it will be around 2200. That is why, if a young mother does not overeat and does not fall for the Soviet "advice" to eat canned condensed milk, losing weight is very real.
Eat properly during and after pregnancy - a beautiful figure will not keep you waiting long.
Should you give up salt completely?
It is undeniable that salt is essential for human life. We all know that the body is 70% water, and sodium chloride (aka salt) maintains water balance. Salt is necessary for the formation of hydrochloric acid (the main component of gastric juice), it stimulates the nervous system and fat metabolism. Without sodium, which is part of the salt, the process of transferring oxygen in the blood and the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle movements is impossible. Therefore, salt cannot be completely excluded. The basis of the foundations of any question, especially concerning nutrition, is a measure.
Are there any benefits of dietary supplements for weight loss?
Most dietary supplements for weight loss are simply dangerous to health. Some are aimed at fast disposal of the intestines (laxatives), while others simply make the heart beat faster (this causes appetite to disappear). Also, many dietary supplements work according to the "placebo" effect. It seems to you that you have found that very magic pill, but in the end, you are simply deceiving yourself by giving large sums of money to pharmaceutical companies.
Lead an active lifestyle, eat rationally and you will not need any dietary supplements.
Which water is the healthiest to drink - bottled or boiled?
There is no definite answer to this question.
Our country is very large: there are cities where you can drink tap water without even filtering it, but there are places where you can only wash in water. And it is in such cases that bottled water will come to the rescue.
But here we are also waiting for dirty tricks from manufacturers. Some brands of bottled water sell the same tap water, they just bottle it. Therefore, it is necessary to read the labels - they always contain all the information about the water.
Should you take vitamins for weight loss?
We need vitamins not only for the period of weight loss. But you shouldn't rush to buy the most expensive multivitamins either. Ideally, we should donate blood for analysis and understand what vitamins and minerals the body lacks. And then choose the right multivitamins or take the necessary vitamins separately.
Is fractional nutrition really effective?
Fractional nutrition came to the common people from the sports world. Imagine a man in mass. Such a big man cannot eat his 3000-3500 kcal for 3 meals. What to do? That's right - split into 7-8 tricks. Now let's imagine a girl for whom the goal is to lose weight, and she should consume 1500 kcal per day. Divide 1500 into 6 meals and get 250 calories each - this is the worst case when you eat and immediately start waiting for the next meal. And dividing the calorie into 3 meals, we get great servings of 500 kcal and long satiety.
Anyone who has calculated the caloric content of a diet using formulas is familiar with such concepts as BMR (basal metabolic rate), TEF (heat effect of nutrition) and TEA (heat effect of activity). So, in this matter, we are interested in TEF, which shows the amount of energy expended by the body for processing and digesting food. Proponents of the idea "the more meals, the better" are guided by the fact that the more often we eat, the more our body spends energy. But the more food enters the body, the more energy is required for processing. That is, from the same amount of food, broken into at least 2, at least 22 meals, the TEF will end up being the same. It turns out that only the calorie content per day is important.
What fruits should not be eaten when losing weight?
There are no foods from which we gain weight or those from which we lose weight. It's the same with fruits: we can afford absolutely any fruit if we include them in the calorie content and eat in moderation.
By giving up high-calorie fruits such as bananas, grapes or persimmons, we are depriving ourselves of many beneficial micronutrients. Leave fruit in the diet, and if you want to give up something, let it be better for chips and fries.
Are "fast" carbohydrates really bad?
"Fast" carbohydrates are macronutrients. We cannot consider them harmful. For "fast" carbohydrates, you just need to find the right place in the diet. First, there should be much less of them than "slow" ones - from 20 to 30% of the daily requirement. Secondly, it is ideal when the intake of "fast" carbohydrates occurs before training.
A banana eaten 30 minutes before going to the gym will only do good and provide energy for intense physical activity.
Can you eat carbs at night?
On the topic of whether it is possible to eat carbohydrates at night, the debate does not stop. And if earlier everyone was inclined to "prohibit", today most experts do not see anything wrong with their use. My opinion: if during the day you did not get carbohydrates, then porridge or, for example, whole grain pasta will only help you sleep better and will not harm your figure in any way. Only without fanaticism! When you consume exclusively protein during the day, you do not need to eat your daily carbohydrate intake before bed.
Is honey safe for the figure?
Sugar is an “empty” product that does not contain any useful micro and macro elements. The composition of honey contains folic acid, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, vitamins B2 and B6, iodine. It has excellent anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. But from a nutritional point of view, this is the same "simple" carbohydrate as sugar - its use should be limited when losing weight and maintaining weight.
Is it true that dairy products contain a lot of sugar?
All dairy products are high in carbohydrates - that's a myth! They contain lactose - milk sugar, but not much of it. For example, in cheese, cottage cheese, its content is minimized. But in milk, yoghurts with additives, carbohydrates are enough. Baked milk contains 2.5% fat, 3.2 grams of protein, but 4.5 grams of carbohydrates.
Do I need to increase the rate of carbohydrates during exercise?
With intense sports and great physical activity, the rate of carbohydrates is higher than that of those who lead a passive lifestyle. In this case, it is calculated individually, in proportion to energy consumption - there is no single figure and cannot be.
Are the glycemic index and percentage of carbohydrates in a food different?
Anyone who adheres to proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle needs to “make friends” with this concept. The glycemic index is the rate at which blood sugar levels rise after consuming carbohydrate foods. You cannot calculate it yourself. There are tables on the Internet with the glycemic index of popular foods - use them. We told you more about the glycemic index here.
A high GI is considered to be from 70, low - up to 35.
I want to draw your attention to the fact that besides rolls and chips, I have a high GI of some fruits and vegetables: potatoes, boiled carrots, melon. Do not exclude them from the diet. To make the right menu, look at the percentage of carbohydrates.
For example, the GI of potatoes is 95 and the percentage of carbohydrates is 11.5. When calculating KBZHU, take the second digit.
Is the morning a good time for sweets?
The rule "eat sweet for breakfast if you really want to" has nothing to do with PP. Morning is not the best time for fast carbs. Your blood sugar drops overnight, and raising it with a bar of chocolate sets the pace for the day. Having eaten sweets at breakfast, you will want them until the evening. If you can't go without dessert, leave it for lunch, or in the afternoon, when there is a decrease in activity and glucose will be good for the brain.
Carbohydrates help the brain work?
This is true, but with some amendments. The brain does not need carbohydrates, but glucose. You can stimulate brain activity not only with candy, but also with buckwheat, “correct” pasta, bulgur and other whole grain products. Any carbohydrate sooner or later breaks down to glucose. In some cases, when there is only a couple of minutes to "turn on" the brain, you can eat a chocolate bar - there is nothing wrong with that.
Is there a carbohydrate addiction?
Carbohydrate dependence is psychological and physiological. In the first case, this is due to a lack of joy hormones (endorphins, serotonin). When "emotional" hunger occurs, a person compensates for it with sweet. Dealing with addiction is quite simple: increase the amount of whole grains in the diet and the problem will be solved.
Physiologically, things are a little more complicated.
Having eaten something sweet, sugar in the blood rises sharply, and insulin is produced in the liver, which is necessary for the transport of glucose to the tissues that need it. After that, the sugar level goes down. The brain again receives a signal about its lack, and the process starts again.
It turns out to be a vicious circle. Partially "excess" glucose is deposited in the form of glycogen, most of it is transformed into subcutaneous adipose tissue. To eliminate physiological dependence, you need to involve specialists. Blood glucose normalizes chromium. It is found in large quantities in broccoli, liver, legumes. Try adding them to your diet if sugar cravings are becoming the rule, not the exception.
Is eating a protein-carbohydrate alternation good for you?
BUCH (protein-carbohydrate alternation) is a nutritional system implying the alternation of days when it is necessary to eat exclusively protein foods with days during which the menu consists mainly of carbohydrate products. The diet looks something like this: the first day is mixed, the second and third you rely on cottage cheese, fish, eggs, lean meat. The diet of the fourth and fifth days should consist of non-starchy vegetables and fruits, various cereals, and whole grain bread. Then again you need to return to protein foods for two days. This type of diet for weight loss is not suitable for everyone and works if there is a calorie deficit. You can't eat like that all the time - there should be no more than 4 cycles.
What is a carbohydrate window?
After any physical activity, the metabolism becomes faster. During exercise, the body increases the level of adrenaline and cortisol. It remains high for 20 to 40 minutes, after which it begins to decline. During this period, the body needs to replenish glycogen stores. This requires glucose, which can be obtained from "fast" carbohydrates. In simple words, the "carbohydrate window" is a period when the body can instantly process carbohydrates without transforming them into subcutaneous fatty tissue.
Is it true that carbohydrates get better?
We do not gain weight from any macronutrient, be it fat or carbohydrate.
Body weight is directly proportional to the daily calorie intake (if we are talking about an absolutely healthy person). This surplus can be found in protein, fat and carbohydrates.
The reason that carbohydrates are blamed for excess weight is as follows: a modern person consumes too many "empty" calories obtained from baked goods, bread, white flour, milk chocolate, and pastries. They are high in calories and are not able to satisfy hunger for a long time. And after eating 500 kcal, in an hour you will eat the same amount. And as a result - a regular bust of the daily calorie intake and excess weight.
Do proteins and carbohydrates go together?
The myth that proteins and carbohydrates are not combined has migrated from the adherents of separate nutrition. Our body perfectly assimilates this "couple". There is no need to be a biochemist: there are practically no products containing only proteins or only carbohydrates. In most cases, they contain all the macronutrients. Buckwheat, for example, contains both carbohydrates and proteins. At the same time, it is perfectly digested and gives a burst of energy. Even meat contains glycogen. Calmly combine protein and carbohydrate foods.
How does a psycho-emotional state affect weight?
The psycho-emotional state affects the hormonal background. With stress in the blood, serotonin levels decrease and cortisol levels increase. We want to restore the balance - we start eating, thus getting pleasure. It happens in another way: a person completely refuses food during stress.
More often than not, "seizing" problems indicates a poorly formed relationship with food. At an early age, it can become a kind of communication with the outside world. “Don't cry, eat some candy,” is it familiar? We often talk about both food and feelings at the same time. And then the person grows up and "seizes" all his emotions.
Alas, it is not customary for us to talk about feelings.
When asked “how are you”, people often answer “okay,” and the dialogue ends there. Children copy the same behavior. They just ignore what happens to them. Food is one of the forms of getting pleasure, so a person gets it.
Refusal to eat is a problem that also begins in childhood. This is how a person punishes himself or tries to attract attention, as kids often do: “Parents, look at me, I don’t eat, you have to turn to me”.
What is emotional hunger and how to deal with it?
True hunger is accompanied by physiological symptoms: pain in the stomach, rumbling of the abdomen, muscle weakness. You cannot fight it - you need to eat to restore the supply of energy necessary to maintain basic metabolism.
If you eat small meals five times a day, physiological hunger cannot occur. When, after a hearty lunch, an hour later, you reach for candy or cookies again, something is wrong with the emotional background.
Think about what preceded the rush to eat the candy. Perhaps it appeared after an unpleasant telephone conversation, or maybe the upcoming dialogue with your superiors scares you? "What did I do before I felt hungry?" - learn to ask yourself this question.
Weight problems in the absence of endocrine disruption occur when a person stops hearing themselves.
An internal choice takes place - to experience your resentment, anger, disappointment, or just eat, rewarding yourself with food.
When the causal relationship of overeating looms, it is easier to deal with the problem.
How to build the right relationship with food?
Back to childhood again. When a child is sick or stressed, parents often offer to help their grief by eating something tasty. A year, two, three, and now food for a person is not a way to maintain strength, but a way to cope with unpleasant emotions. Relationships are formed, and only a psychologist can change something in them.
From an early age, the child needs to be explained: "We eat in order to be strong, healthy and beautiful."
"Until you eat, you will not get up from the table" - a phrase that you need to forget. Food should be food, not reward or punishment. Separate emotions from meals.
Are there techniques you can do at home to help you deal with emotional overeating?
A lot of them. Some take months to complete. The easiest way is to write down everything that happened to you before your food breakdown. This will help you deal with how you felt before you "persuade" the pint. When awareness comes, the problem is almost solved - a psychologist is no longer needed.
What attitudes should be avoided when losing weight?
First of all, a person must realize for whom he decided to lose weight: for himself or others. Many girls start losing weight in order to please young people. “They look at me differently, treat me differently,” is the wrong approach.
You need to lose weight for your own health, well-being and solely out of self-love. There are quite a few overweight people who don't bother with how they look - they are satisfied with their lives and happy.
It's a matter of self-esteem. If it is low, even having won the “fitness bikini” nomination, you will continue to look for flaws in yourself.
Many begin to lose weight due to dissatisfaction with their lives. They believe that by losing weight, they will be able to change something (and at least marry a "prince"). This is the wrong attitude to the process of losing weight. When a person loses weight, but nothing changes, it is even more stressful than losing weight. Having not received what he wants, he again begins to eat uncontrollably.
Understand that in life nothing will radically change after losing weight. You need to work with internal problems and attitude towards yourself.
How to stay on track while losing weight?
Getting on the "path of health", a person must prepare himself for the fact that this is a long process. In two weeks, you will not be an XS size princess. This is a serious work on yourself. With the wrong approach, a person who has not achieved a quick result thinks: "Why am I doing this, I torture myself, it would be better if I would also enjoy life and eat my favorite sweets." Vicious circle.
Tell us about the mechanism of overeating?
Overeating occurs when you satisfy more than just physical hunger. Normally, 15 minutes after the stomach is full, the brain receives a stop signal. For this reason, nutritionists advise getting up from the table with a slight feeling of hunger.
When the problems are “fed”, the transmission of the signal of satiety is disrupted - the person continues to eat, although there is no physiological need for this.
Until he gets satisfaction, he will continue to feed himself. It will be difficult for him to eat, but the person will not stop until the body completely refuses to take food.
How is overeating related to the inner child?
At an early age, children receive the unconditional love of their parents. Their smiles, funny words, first steps are so touching that they just need to be themselves in order to receive thousands of kisses a day.
With age, this need does not go away. The person still needs care and unconditional love. When this is not enough, the "child" makes a revolution by demanding a "dose." A person begins to look for sources of pleasure. The easiest is food. Many people choose him to solve the problem.
You need to feed your "inner child", but not with sweets and a sandwich. There are many ways to get positive emotions - hobbies, socializing with friends, sports, bike.
Just find yours, otherwise overeating problems won't go away.
Is anxiety one of the possible causes of excess weight?
Anxiety is the same emotion as everyone else. It can also be "seized", as well as fears, resentments, dissatisfaction. For a while, eating really helps you deal with the experience. But then the alarm comes back again. One additional meal, the second, and now on the scales +10.
There is a category of women who may or may not eat. But that doesn't mean they don't have health problems from overeating. Visceral fat is a serious health problem (fatty liver, for example).
Anxiety is a condition that is also associated with the dissatisfaction of the “inner child”. And we need to learn to calm him down not with food. Although we were not taught otherwise, today there is a lot of information on how to do it.
Even if the mother has not changed outwardly, anxiety will be passed on to the child, who will copy the same pattern of behavior. An anxious mother has every chance of raising an equally anxious child prone to overweight.
Can you change your eating habits in 21 days?
The most common mistake of all those losing weight: to drive yourself into a frame. It is considered: the habit is formed in 21 days. What happens if it doesn't? The person will not achieve the goal and will lie. Do not put bans and restrictions on yourself. The correct setting sounds something like this: "I allow myself to eat one candy once a week!" After seven days, replace this candy with dried fruit - and the brain will not rebel from another "no", and the body will begin to get used to healthy food.
How to set goals for weight loss?
The goal must be real!
Start small. For example, the goal for the day is to give up bread. When you succeed, there will be a sense of satisfaction and new stimulus will appear. The next goal may be longer term.
For example, do not consume carbohydrates in the afternoon. Further more. Break your long path into small distances - they are much easier to cope with.
To reduce disruptions, you need to change not only the power system, but also your whole life. It is impossible to succeed in conditions of psychological discomfort. Everything needs to be changed: attitude to oneself, life, problems.
What techniques do psychotherapists use to lose weight?
All psychologists have different ways. There are many methods - there is no universal one. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is used more often than others. In this case, the specialist teaches the patient to adjust his thinking for comfortable weight loss. In parallel, the specialist is engaged in the study of children's problems - transactive analysis. The most effective ways to lose weight: working through the past and working with your thoughts in the present.
Does coding help with weight loss?
The encoding is based on hypnosis. During the session, the person is instilled with something from the series "die after a piece of cake." When after the "encoding" there is a desire to eat something harmful, this is accompanied by a feeling of anxiety - a person thinks that something terrible will happen to him.
Encodings work, but are temporary. Sooner or later, a person breaks down. After that, he realizes: nothing happened to him and again begins to eat everything that comes to hand. This is not the best way: the same ban under the "sauce" of good intentions. Problems need to be worked out with a psychologist, and this takes time.
Children are often forced to eat. How does this affect eating behavior in adulthood?
You cannot force a child to eat. He has a negative attitude towards food - this should not be.
It so happened that food in many families is put in the first place. Not surprising. The grandmothers and great-grandmothers who survived the blockade received severe psychological trauma. But it's time to understand: the world has changed. Children don't die of starvation.
Food shouldn't be above emotional needs. If the child does not want to eat, do not force it. When he gets hungry, he will ask.
What psychological problems does excess weight entail?
Often, due to excess weight, a person develops dissatisfaction with his life - relationships, work. He does not accept himself, but at the same time he does not know what is happening to him. Internal conflict is the most likely scenario. We have already spoken about this.
The person must determine what he will receive after losing weight. Not a husband and an expensive car, of course. He will become strong, handsome, fit, healthy - this is the only correct motivation.
How to get rid of guilt after overeating?
Most often, external factors push a person to lose weight: he wants to please not himself, but someone. He constantly looks in the mirror, trying to estimate how many centimeters have gone into the waist, gets on the scales, controlling each gram. Everyone has breakdowns - this is normal. But when a person loses weight not for himself, but for others, he begins to think: "What will people think?" - there is a feeling of guilt.
It is important to find the right inner state: "I want to lead a healthy lifestyle, feel comfortable." When you set goals for yourself, you will only be accountable to yourself. You feel guilt towards someone. It will not accompany you with the correct definition of goals.
How to return the state of psychological comfort after a food breakdown?
Most often, people with low self-esteem go on a diet - they do not love themselves or their body. The process of losing weight must start from the "head", having first solved the internal problems. No pill for food breakdowns and guilt. Many problems occur due to the fact that we constantly compare ourselves with someone: "Everyone succeeded, but I did not." Understand, everyone who sat, sits and will sit on diets periodically have breakdowns. This is not your personal mistake, for which you need to reproach yourself. Nothing terrible will happen after one candy - you will not gain five kilograms (you will not even gain 500 grams). Allow yourself to make mistakes.
Perfectionists, who always strive to be the best in everything, are most often prone to "self-flagellation". They don't need a "four" - only 5+.
What is the reason for overeating at night?
Night hunger is not a physiological need. At this time, we must sleep. Often before bed, we think about how our day went. It is not always possible to remember something good. If at night you are drawn to the refrigerator, most likely, you "seize" some negative emotions. When you wake up, analyze what preceded the nightly raid on the refrigerator. Having found out the reason, you can easily cope with this phenomenon.
What is binge eating disorder and how to deal with it?
Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder characterized by the uncontrolled consumption of large amounts of food. In simple terms, a person can eat a bucket of ice cream and not notice it. The very process of eating food is erased from his memory.
This is a serious psychological problem.
People who are prone to binge eating need to be conscious of each step. They need to pronounce any action and constantly be “in the body”: I go to the refrigerator, the floor is cold, I open the refrigerator, and so on.
To get rid of binge eating disorder, you need to understand what is happening to you. Perhaps you are under pressure from others that it is time to get married, and eating food is a way to escape from reality. Any behavior has an “internal” explanation. How you will solve the problem is another question.
Do people with different temperaments need a different approach to losing weight?
By and large, there are no differences in weight loss for sanguine and choleric people. Choleric people are more dependent on emotions and therefore prone to breakdowns. Flared up - ate. But this does not mean that it is easier for a sanguine or phlegmatic person to lose weight. The end result will be the same for everyone.
Why can't strict limits be set?
Any strict prohibition causes negative emotions - a person feels unhappy, it seems to him that he is deprived of something. Today many people practice "cheat meals" - the days when you can eat something delicious. Any process goes much faster when there is a reward ahead. But the main goal should still be love for yourself and your body.
The process of losing weight is always accompanied by anxiety - we count calories, grams, centimeters, fearing to do something wrong. We do not regard this as a pleasure, but as a problem.
Therefore, the day when you can eat "forbidden", give a lot of positive emotions - losing weight are waiting for him, as we summer in our climate.
How to stop food breakdown?
At this point, you need to remind yourself: "I want to lead a healthy lifestyle." Knowing that a whole cake is too much stress on the body will help stop. Realize that two kilograms of potatoes will not add health, but will force the internal systems and organs to work in an "emergency" mode. Eat three and then think about how uncomfortable your body will be if you continue.
Is it true that some people see the benefit of being overweight?
Absolute truth. There is always a benefit in any action. As a child, we are often rewarded with sweets. Having matured, a person continues to do the same. When he eats dessert, the childlike feeling of being loved returns. It's hard to refuse this.
In addition, an overweight person is far from modern standards - he looks different. This gives a sense of uniqueness, which is especially true for those whose parents set attitudes like "keep your head down, be like everyone else." He just wants to be different from everyone, no matter what the cost.
Is it important to find like-minded people, or is it better to lose weight on your own?
It is more difficult for one to lose weight. It's not for nothing that today all sorts of slimness marathons are so popular. When everyone shares their real results, tells how they did it, additional motivation appears. External support is important. Register on the forums, use Instagram, follow other people losing weight on any social networks - this will help you stay on track.
How to change your family's eating habits?
Losing weight is difficult enough if everyone in the family continues to eat a loaf of butter. If your husband and children like you like that, the motivator in their face is "so-so" - they will not encourage your desire for harmony. The desire will not be so strong.
Habits change gradually. Start with greens - add them little by little as you cook. Introduce more vegetables into your diet. Spend time looking for delicious and healthy food recipes. You can't just stand up and say, "We'll eat celery from tomorrow." No ultimatum forms.
What do you think are the most common reasons for weight loss failure?
The biggest reason for failure is poorly set goals. We talked about this a little higher. It is important to understand how you will achieve them. Keep a diary for your meal plan. Much depends on the person. There are people who always bring what they started to the end. There are those who pass their license until the end of their lives, who cannot graduate from college.
Find yourself an example that you would like to be equal to, and move towards your goal. Step by step. The main thing is to stop on time and not reach anorexia - this is generally a separate topic for conversation. When eating becomes stressful for you, it's time to hit stop.