2023 Author: Jessica James | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 04:20
What do we do when a tooth hurts? We go to the dentist. When the temperature rises, we call a doctor. And what is usually done with diabetes mellitus at an early stage? Alas, nothing. And how to recognize an ailment when nothing hurts?
Diabetes itself is not as bad as its consequences. One could live happily ever after with high blood sugar if not for complications. The list is impressive: renal failure, vascular damage up to a stroke or myocardial infarction, visual impairment and blindness, loss of limb sensitivity (and this is the threat of gangrene and subsequent amputation). It is with such symptoms that patients usually go to the doctor, but complete recovery cannot be achieved: irreversible processes have started, so you can only stop the development of the disease at this stage.
Sounds depressing, right? But everyone knows that the best treatment is prevention. There is a real chance to prevent diabetes and prediabetes. As part of the Prediabetes: Time to Act program, launched by Merck and the Endocrinological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, an informative lecture was held on what is terrible about type 2 diabetes and how to prevent the disease without waiting for the first symptoms (list of speakers below). Our editorial staff attended the information event with great interest and is in a hurry to share the main theses with you.
Today, 1 in 11 adults suffers from type 2 diabetes - this is a real epidemic. In 2014 alone, almost 5 million deaths were recorded in the world, one way or another associated with diabetes mellitus, and this figure, unfortunately, remains stable. It exceeds the number of deaths from breast cancer, lung cancer, malaria, HIV and AIDS combined!
There are 5.9 million people with diabetes in Russia, which is more than the population of St. Petersburg! The city "Diabetes" is the second largest city in Russia after Moscow. And that's not counting those who do not yet know about their diagnosis.
Prediabetes is a pre-diabetes condition in which blood glucose levels are above normal but have not yet reached diabetic levels. The main risk factors are heredity, liver and pancreas diseases, chronic urinary tract and respiratory tract infections, chronic kidney damage, complications after pregnancy and childbirth, obesity, etc.
If you fall into a risk group for one or more points, we recommend taking a blood sugar test, as well as contacting an endocrinologist.
How to prevent?
Many people believe that if the blood glucose level is elevated, it is urgent to lower it with the help of diets and special drugs. But there are pitfalls here. The fact is that the glucose produced by the liver must be delivered in the right amount and at a certain rate to all tissues and organs, and most of it is consumed by the brain. It is important to remember that glucose is the energy that the body needs, so you should not chop off the shoulder and sit on a starvation ration. That is why it is so important to focus not on restricting food, but on a balanced diet.
According to UNESCO, the Greek diet is best suited for genetic Caucasians (that is, you and me), in which the emphasis is on fish and seafood, and the consumption of red meat is minimized (no more than twice a week). By the way, the inhabitants of the Mediterranean have a secret: a half-glass of good red wine is always served with red meat - this is how bad cholesterol from animal fat is neutralized. Surprisingly, the most correct way to cook meat and fish is barbecue, however, without the usual marinade and salt.
Cereals, vegetables, fruits, mushrooms and nuts are the staple food for the Greeks. In our region, the lack of ballast substances can be replenished by adding fiber to cereals, yoghurt, soups and other dishes. As for mushrooms and legumes, they significantly reduce the likelihood of cardiovascular disease, and they are also a nutritious source of plant protein. Everything seems to be clear with fruits and vegetables, but there are a couple of nuances: freshly squeezed juice (except for tomato juice) causes a huge release of glucose in the body, so do not overuse it. And be sure to make up for the lack of fiber, which is not in juice, because it is dietary fiber that reduces bad cholesterol levels.
You've probably heard that even with weight loss and diabetes, you can't give up fat. Indeed, but with a caveat: the fats must be of vegetable, not animal origin. Therefore, include olive and flaxseed oils in your diet - these are real superfoods! Speaking of superfoods, there are 11 healthy foods that all nutritionists recommend. These include cantaloupe melon, long potatoes, low fat milk, salmon, oranges, broccoli, whole grain breads, cereals (muesli), legumes, spinach and sardines.
Do not forget about small pleasures: after all, eating should be enjoyable. In the morning, you can eat a slice of dark chocolate (from 72% cocoa) or replace it with a stevia analog.
With physical activity, everything is much easier than with nutrition: to prevent diabetes and other metabolic, as well as cardiovascular diseases, you need to take 10 thousand steps every day starting from the age of 22. As a supplement to walking - fitness or active sports twice a week for 40 minutes. Such loads will ensure a long and healthy life.
Finally, we provide you with a Mediterranean diet plan:
Olive oil - from 4 tbsp. l / week
Nuts - from 3 servings / week
Fresh fruit - from 3 servings / day
Vegetables - from 2 servings / day
Fish, seafood - from 3 servings / week
Legumes, white meat - from 3 servings / week
Tomato sauce - from 3 servings / week
Soda drinks - less than 1 serving / day
Semi-finished products, sweets, pastries - less than 3 servings / week.
Spreads - less than 1 serving / day
Red meat and semi-finished meat products - less than 1 serving / day
Speakers: Alexander Sergeevich Ametov, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology of the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, member of the Presidium of the All-Russian Society of Endocrinologists, Chairman of the Education Committee of the Russian Association of Endocrinologists; Alexey Vadimovich Zilov, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Endocrinology of the First Moscow State Medical University named after I. M Sechenova, member of the Presidium of the Russian Association of Endocrinologists, member of the European Endocrinological Association for the Study of Diabetes Mellitus (EASD); Fatima Khadzhimuratovna Dzgoeva, Ph. D., doctor of the highest category, member of the European Atherosclerotic Society and the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Text: Maria Stefanova